Knowledge and Resources
Year: 2019

The Global Jobs Indicators Database (JoIn) presents - for 150 countries- more than 60 of the standardized labor supply indicators which are most commonly used in country Jobs Diagnostics. These cover socio-demographics, labor force status and employment type, employment composition by sector and occupation, education level completed, hours worked, and earnings. The database was compiled from national surveys and subnational microdata which was first harmonized for the Bank-wide I2D2 database, then quality checked by the Jobs Group. Jobs Indicators are disaggregated by urban/rural; male/female; and youth/adults and are presented for all years for which household surveys are available in the I2D2 database.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

Supporting jobs for youth in Niger means addressing difficult questions of the right level of ambition, of reaching the necessary scale, and of trade-offs with funding for poverty reduction. Jobs policy for youth in Niger faces a difficult balancing act. It must be grounded in the reality that given the very modest starting point, economic opportunities for most Nigeriens are likely to remain limited in the medium term. At the same time, jobs policy needs to contend with the fact that young Nigeriens aspire for a different economic life than that lived by their elders. The challenge is thus to determine what kind of support is realistically feasible and can provide a good-enough perspective for young Nigeriens. Secondly, policy must ask whether the actions envisaged can make a real difference at scale, given the very big needs for better jobs. Finally, in an environment where poverty remains pervasive, it is important to acknowledge that providing jobs support specifically for youth may mean forgoing other investments that may be more efficient in reducing poverty. To make informed choices on these questions, policy makers may need to understand clearly the effectiveness of different jobs support modalities, their appropriateness in addressing Niger`s challenges, and their cost efficiency. This study seeks to provide such an assessment. The purpose of this study is to review the effectiveness of projects that supported jobs for youth in Niger over the years 2007-2018.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

With an estimated 724 million extreme poor people living in developing countries, and the world’s
demographics bifurcating into an older north and a younger south, there are substantial economic incentives and benefits for people to migrate. There are also important market and regulatory failures that constrain mobility and reduce the net benefits of migration. This paper reviews the recent literature and proposes a conceptual framework to better integrate and coordinate policies for addressing the different market and regulatory failures. The paper advances five types of interventions in need of particular attention in terms of design, implementation and evaluation; namely, 1) active labor market programs that serve local, regional and foreign markets; 2) remittances and investment subsidies to promote job creation and labor productivity growth; 3) social insurance programs that cover all jobs and facilitate labor mobility; 4) labor taxes to internalize the social costs of migration in receiving regions; and 5) more flexible, private sector driven schemes to regulate the flow of migrants and minimize irregular migration.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2019

Mozambique has a low average yield of raw cashew nut (RCN) of 3 kg/tree. The latest census of agriculture in 2015 estimated that 1.33 million households owned cashew trees. Another 30,000 households were involved post-harvest. One-half of RCN production sold was processed in 2015, up from 1/3 in 2008. A large share of cashew exports are raw nuts, mostly “informal” (no tax). In 2017, national production was only two-thirds of 1972, when Mozambique was the world leader in cashew exports. An export tax was imposed on RCN exports in 2001, currently 18 percent of the F.O.B. price, to promote domestic processing. Key challenges for production include replacing aging trees with improved root-stock and stepped-up anti-fungal spraying. Industrial processing now comprises 15 factories employing 17,000 workers, 57 percent of whom are women. Main recommendations are: a multi-stakeholder Platform to periodically review cashew developments; smallholder participation in producer organizations; privatization of seedlings distribution and tree-spraying without subsidies; public and private commercial infrastructure (warehouses, transportation, access roads); accessible international market and technical information; using cashew shells to generate energy; using cashew apple to produce packaged fermented beverages; and a cross-Ministry push on food safety protocols for cashew.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

This paper examines the effects of a government-sponsored apprenticeship training program designed to address high levels of youth unemployment in Ghana. The study exploits randomized access to the program to examine the short-run effects of apprenticeship training on labor market outcomes. The results show that apprenticeships shift youth out of wage work and into self-employment. However, the loss of wage income is not offset by increases in self-employment profits in the short run. In addition, the study uses the randomized match between apprentices and training providers to examine the causal effect of characteristics of trainers on outcomes for apprentices. Participants who trained with the most experienced trainers or the most profitable ones had higher earnings. These increases more than offset the program's negative treatment effect on earnings. This suggests that training programs can be made more effective through better recruitment of trainers.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

South Asia’s economy has grown rapidly, and the region has made a significant reduction in poverty. However, the available jobs for the growing working population remain limited. Policy makers are contending with lingering concerns about jobless growth and poor job quality. Exports to Jobs: Boosting the Gains from Trade in South Asia posits that exports, could bring higher wages and better jobs to South Asia. We use a new methodology to estimate the potential impact from higher South Asian exports per worker on wages and employment. We find that increasing exports per worker would result in higher wages, mostly for the better-off groups—like the better-educated workers, men, and the more-experienced workers—although the less-skilled and rural workers would benefit from new job opportunities outside of the informal sector. Our report shows that to spread the benefits from higher exports widely, policies are needed to raise skills and get certain groups, such as women and youth, into more and better jobs. Complementary measures include removing trade barriers and investing in infrastructure, and increasing the ability of workers to find higher-paying jobs. Together, these actions would help South Asian countries spread the gains from being closely integrated into the global economy through exporting. This book, which is the product of a partnership between the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, contributes to our understanding of the impact that growing exports can have on increasing well-being, and it bridges the gap between academic research and policy making.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year:

Integrating an impact evaluation into the Zambia Agribusiness and Trade Project(P156492), this study will assess the role of technical support and financing on the emergence and sustainability of trading relationships in agriculture. The interventions target two points of the value chain for agricultural outputs: that of farmer groups with buyers and that of small agribusinesses with their buyers. Consequently, in practice, this proposal is putting forward two separate, but related impact evaluations – one based on farmer groups and the other on agribusiness SMEs. In both settings, the evaluations will seek to (a) identify the market frictions that prevent the formation of productive trading relationships between buyers and sellers/producers, and (b) test approaches to targeting these frictions to improve contracting and welfare for both parties. Using a Randomized Control Trial, the impact evaluations aim to contribute rigorous evidence to a literature-base that is relatively underserved, and understand the effect of releasing coordination frictions and liquidity constraints in the creation of productivity-enhancing relationships.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2019

Mozambique had 60,000 hectares of large-scale commercial planted forest in 2009, supporting about 3,000 full-time-equivalent jobs. Very little growth in large-scale commercial planted area has occurred since 2009, unlike what would be required to meet predictions at the time of 1,000,000 hectares planted by 2030. Labor costs are three to four times lower in plantation forestry in Mozambique than in Brazil, South Africa, and Uganda. Yet, unit costs per cubic meter of eucalyptus timber produced in Mozambique are higher due to lower tree volume growth rates, skills gaps, and employee absenteeism up to 50 percent. Yet, deforestation and imports of high-end wood products are rekindling interest in plantation forestry, with recognition of the need for community involvement. Integration of
smaller-scale forestry into community land use patterns is taking off. Recommended actions include: matching grants financed by public resources to leverage private investment and contract farming through community woodlots; empowerment of an independent third-party organization funded by companies to analyze, broker and communicate amongst relevant stakeholders; private sector mobile agroforestry schools for training in remote areas; community land-use plans developed with local stakeholders, delimiting different kinds of land and different rights; and strengthening of community-based organizations that deal with land.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2019

Cassava is the principal starch in Mozambique, at 30 percent of calories. It can be stored unharvested up to 30 months, but fresh cassava lasts only 3 days once harvested. Most processing in Mozambique is artisanal, to eliminate cyanogenic glycosides in the 90 percent of production from pest resistant bitter varieties. Only 6 percent of production in 2011 was used commercially for non-food, two-thirds for feed and one-third for starch. Low levels of productivity for cassava compared to elsewhere and poor transportation ar the main barriers to the development of a processing industry. Unit costs of production range from USD 0.09 to USD 0.30 U.S. cents per kg. Producers would need to achieve 15 tons/hectare to be commercially viable, compared to average yields between 5 and 9 tons/hectare in Mozambique. Actions recommended include: adoption of a "Master Plan "; time-limited subsidies for industrial Hig Quality Cassava Flour, ethanol, and starch; a network of service providers to operate in smallholder areas to deliver improved inputs and extension; promotion of farmers’ associations for better access to service providers; research on pest control in sweet varieties; greater availability of global market intelligence; capacity-building for processing; and introduction of legal norms to prevent processors from polluting.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

This paper examines the quality of management practices in Turkey and its relation to other firm-level characteristics such as firm performance, competition, and type of ownership. A key finding is that management quality is positively correlated with
productivity and quality of jobs across subsectors of manufacturing. But the average score of management quality in Turkey is relatively low compared to peer countries. Factors such as firm size, level of human capital of the workforce, export intensity of the firm, openness to international markets, level of hierarchy in decision making, and degree of managerial autonomy are found to be important determinants of managerial practices in Turkey. Thus, improvements in these dimensions, through relevant policies and incentives, can have a positive effect on the quality of firm management going forward. Such improvements in management practices—particularly in the two dimensions where Turkey scores lowest: monitoring and targeting—can have positive effects on firm performance and lead to increases in the creation of quality jobs.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

This document outlines the pre-analysis plan to study the effects of the Urban Productive Sa- fety Net Program (UPSNP) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, one year after it started. The evaluation takes advantage of the randomization of the program at the woreda level during its first year of implementation. Of the 90 eligible woredas in Addis, 35 were randomly assigned to start implementation right away (in year 1) while the remaining 55 were assigned to start imple- mentation approximately 12 months later (in year 2). We look at household and individual effects of the program on direct recipients of both of the two main intervention arms of the program, as well as the effect of the program on non-beneficiary households living in urban neighbourhoods where the program is rolled out.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2019

This Note is a stocktake summarizing evidence on “what works” in youth employment programs on both the supply and demand side. Employment outcomes refer both to direct and indirect job creation, including through firm start-up, as well as improvements in the quality of jobs as manifested in higher earnings as self-employment or increases in household income. This paper is based on an extensive desk literature review and analyzes the major meta-analysis and literature reviews on both the labor demand side and labor supply side.The supply side has a large body of evidence and evaluations of the whole Active Labor Market Policies (ALMPs) package as a whole. Kluve et al. (2016) and McKenzie, D. (2017) have a rigorous methodology and provide wide analysis and recommendations of the major studies on the supply side and provide the basis for that section.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2019

Iraq needs a strategy to make rapid progress in tackling its profound jobs challenges. Iraq is facing a jobs crisis of unprecedented proportions. It could foment a resurgence in violence unless the Government of Iraq makes credible and swift progress in job creation and reconstruction. To shape a longer-term vision, Iraq can look beyond its recent history of conflict, and to its past as a diversified economy & home of an educated workforce.However, in the short-term, neither private/ public sector hiring can create jobs at the desired scale without significant new policy action. The first-best solution for large-scale private sector job creation hinges on structural reforms that must begin now, but are achievable only in the medium to longer term. This paper provides a primer on options to deliver large-scale job creation in the short-term, based on investments in construction, agriculture and agribusiness, small & medium enterprises, and vocational skills. Its aim is to outline workable steps for progress in a jobs crisis in a post-conflict situation. Because these steps focus on rapid impact at scale, rather than structural reform, they are less-than-ideal or second-best. A similar logic applies to financing options. Financing needs for jobs are large, and while business climate reforms are under way,first-best private investment in jobs will remain limited.Yet, the recent oil price hike offers the Government of Iraq a uniquely timely opportunity to make an investment in jobs.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019

There is a growing body of literature exploring the skill content of jobs. This article contributes to this research by using data on the task content of occupations from developing countries, instead of US data as most existing studies do. It finds that US-based indexes do not provide a fair approximation of the levels, changes and drivers of the routine cognitive and non-routine manual skill content of jobs in developing countries.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2019

Informality is ubiquitous in the labor markets of developing countries, and requiring that firms formally register, pay taxes, and provide employee benefits stipulated in labor regulations to reduce such informality is challenging. However, a matched survey on employer-employee preferences suggests that mutually beneficial job benefits exist, and that encouraging their adoption might be feasible. Carefully designed discrete choice experiments on combinations of benefits related to compensation, leave and termination policies, working conditions, and accident insurance, along with incentives for employers, reveal the relative values that workers and employers attach to each benefit. The results show that workers tend to value advance notice for job termination and accident insurance, and that employers are not averse to providing these benefits. In contrast, workers find long working hours without overtime compensation to be highly undesirable, whereas many employers are generally unwilling to provide shorter hours or overtime pay unless they face the threat of fines or are offered substantial incentives for doing so. Our findings therefore suggest that encouraging the provision of termination notice and accident insurance may be relatively easy, but that increasing compliance with legal limits on working hours and overtime compensation is likely to require increased enforcement or substantial incentives.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Over the recent past, Burkina Faso has registered solid economic growth and poverty levels have been lowered, suggesting that growth has been pro-poor. Yet, poverty remains widespread despite high levels of labor market participation and employment. In practice, life for many in the country remains a struggle, even when compared to equally challenging conditions elsewhere in the region. The overview report on the "Jobs Diagnostic: Burkina Faso" provides a multi-sectoral analysis of the country's jobs challenges by looking at macro-economic conditions and trends, hindrances to labor demand, issues affecting jobs outcomes in agriculture and determinants of jobs outcomes in general. The report draws on recent household and enterprise surveys and provides regional comparisons that place the challenges in Burkina Faso in a wider context. It closes with preliminary policy recommendations for a future jobs strategy.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2018

Paraguay has achieved positive employment outcomes over the last decade, reflecting more jobs and improved average job quality, which together contributed to significant poverty reduction. Firms played a major role in creating these jobs, especially formal jobs. It is important to understand how firm performance has translated into employment, the nature of the resulting jobs, and the factors affecting these outcomes. Using firm-level datasets, this analysis explores the characteristics of firms that are growing or stagnating; the sectors into which new firms are entering or incumbent firms are expanding their operations; and the factors that may be helping or hindering firms to enter, expand, or increase their productivity. High rates of informality and evasion create a challenging private sector environment for firms, but even among formal firms, the prevailing structure is characterized by micro-firms that lack scale economies, are concentrated in non-tradables, have generally low productivity levels, and rely on unskilled employment. The analysis also finds a pervasive duality between micro-sized low-productivity firms on one end, and a small number of highly productive firms in concentrated markets on the other end. These results imply some important challenges for the continued development of a healthy, dynamic and inclusive private sector.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

The paper is structured in six further sections following this introduction. Section two develops a conceptual framework, and reviews the literature on the relationship between trade integration and labor market outcomes. Section three outlines the empirical framework and data used in the analysis. Section four presents results on the relationship between overall trade integration (through exports) and labor market outcomes. Section five then focuses specifically on GVC trade, and assesses the relationship between labor market outcomes and GVC integration as a buyer and as a seller. Section six tests if select policy indicators mediate these relationships between trade integration and labor market outcomes. Finally, section seven concludes, with a summary of results and areas for future research.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2018

Following a couple of decades of offshoring, the fear today is of reshoring. Using administrative data on Mexican exports by municipality, sector and destination from 2004 to 2014, this paper investigates how local labor markets in Mexico that are more exposed to automation in the U.S. through trade fared in exports and employment outcomes. The results show that an increase of one robot per thousand workers in the U.S. — about twice the increase observed between 2004-2014 — lowers growth in exports per worker from Mexico to the U.S. by 6.7 percent. Higher exposure to U.S. automation did not affect wage employment, nor manufacturing wage employment overall.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This paper uses a randomized information intervention to shed light on whether poor understanding of social insurance, both the process of enrolling and costs and benefits, drives the relatively low rates of participation in urban health insurance and pension programs among China's rural-urban migrants. Among workers without a contract, the information intervention has a strong positive effect on participation in health insurance and, among younger age groups, in pension programs. Migrants are responsive to price: in cities where the premiums are low relative to earnings, information induces health insurance participation, while declines are observed in cities with high relative premiums.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2018

This paper reviews and critically evaluates existing evidence on female entrepreneurial activity. First, we identify how female-run businesses are different, by examining both economic and non-economic outcomes which are frequently overlooked. Second, we offer a comprehensive discussion of drivers to explain why these differences. We group these drivers in four categories: (i)preferences, (ii) endowments, (iv) external constraints, and(iv) internal constraints. Third, we review evidence on the types of policies that have been effective or have potential to address the different drivers. Finally, we offer a discussion of the gaps in the literature and identify areas for future research.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Digital technologies affect employment through complex channels: automation, connectivity, and innovation. Labor-saving technologies coupled with reshoring may disrupt labor markets in developing countries and result in job losses. Yet, technological change drives productivity gains in both white-collar and blue-collar jobs either through ICT uptake or modern mechanical technologies. The ‘gig economy’ changes the traditional employer-employee relationship as it introduces new types of work. Digital platforms increase flexibility and labor market transparency, but delink workers from employers and from social benefits and protections making them more vulnerable. Policymakers in rich and poor countries alike should rethink social protection mechanisms. Technology diffusion has created divided worlds varying by region and income level. Job automation is likely to have a greater impact on less skilled workers than those with a university education (40 percent versus 5 percent in OECD countries). Moving towards a digital economy will reward those with access to broadband connectivity, strong institutions, and digital literacy. Future workers must acquire basic IT skills together with socio emotional skills that adapt to a lifelong learning environment in a changing jobs landscape. Technology can also increase labor market access for women and persons with disabilities, given the right ‘analog’ complements are in place. Technological change will affect the number, quality, and distribution of jobs across the world. In developing countries, the future workforce should be ready to embrace technology, digital literacy, and connectedness—bringing everyone closer to the technological frontier.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Labor Market Observatories (LMOs) are institutions that help guide job seekers and students, intermediaries, policymakers, training institutions, as well as investors and employers with labor market trends and guidance to build better careers.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Today, more than half of Haiti's population calls cities and towns their home, in a major shift from the 1950s when around 90 percent of Haitians lived in the countryside. Urbanization is usually paired with economic growth, increased productivity, and higher living standards, but in Haiti it has taken a different course. Potential benefits have been overshadowed by immense challenges, all of which require immediate action. To better understand the factors that constrain the sustainable and inclusive development of Haitian cities, this Urbanization Review organizes the challenges along three dimensions of urban development namely planning, connecting, and financing. Planning reviews the challenges in supporting resilient growth to create economically vibrant, environmentally sustainable, and livable cities. Connecting focuses on the obstacles of physically linking people to jobs and businesses to markets, while financing focuses on identifying the key capital, governance, and institutional constraints that are hurdles to successful planning and connecting.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

One-fifth of the world's population lives in countries affected by fragility, violence and conflict, impeding long-term economic growth. However, little is known about how firms respond to local changes in security, partly because of the difficulty of measuring firm activity in these settings. This paper presents a novel methodology for observing private sector activity using mobile phone metadata. Using Afghanistan as the empirical setting, the analysis combines mobile phone data from over 2,300 firms with data from several other sources to develop and validate measures of firm location, size, and economic activity.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2018

This paper identifies the factors that affect the location of firms in Tanzania. Using a binomial econometric strategy to address data gaps in firm location at the ward level, the paper groups factors into firm characteristics, market features, and two types of agglomeration economies that capture economies of scale external to the firm. The benefits of agglomeration may stem from specialization within and among firms (referred to in the literature as localization economies) or from diversification across firms (referred to as urbanization economies). The distinction between these two lies at the heart of the discussion on firm location. Regression results indicate that, of the various factors tested, the most important determinant driving firm location is the jobs diversification spect of urban economies. Other contributing factors are localization economies (jobs specialization), competitive markets, and market access. Based on these findings, policymakers seeking to foster agglomeration could orient policies toward promoting firm entry within cities, complementary investments in urban infrastructure and the urban pool of labor, regulations that support competition, and improvements in market access for large cities. But localization economies are also significant in Tanzania, and could be encouraged through investment in smaller population centers and increasing competition and market access beyond the primary urban centers of Dar-es-Salaam and Arusha.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2018
Type: Guidelines/Toolkits
Year: 2018

Value chain (VC) studies allow us to provide an in-depth understanding of the interrelationships among firms that operate in a supply network and of the factors that determine the structure, dynamism, and competitiveness of these chains. Although most approaches to value chain analysis provide a limited focus on the nature and structure of jobs in these chains, the Jobs in Value Chains survey toolkit discussed in this guide will help illuminate the number of jobs, where they are located in the VC, and the extent and nature of relationships among actors in a VC.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This report focuses on the challenge of Mozambique’s jobs transition: how to accelerate the shift into higher value-added activities and better livelihoods. As Mozambique enters the next phase of the demographic transition, the working-age population (WAP) is growing rapidly.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Year: 2018

Between 2007 and 2017, 99 countries initiated reforms in labor regulations that affected World Bank Doing Business labor indicators. The most common topics for reforms are (i) procedural requirements in case of contract termination, and changes in notification arrangements; (ii) fixed-term contracts; (iii) severance payments; (iv) annual leave arrangements, and (v) working time arrangements. Approximately 48 percent of the reforms made labor legislation more flexible, and 52 percent enforced more worker protection. The objective of this study is to document these reforms, and identify key benchmarks in labor legislation by country groups.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Annual Report
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Working Papers
Year: 2018

The World Bank in collaboration with the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) conducted an assessment on the constraints and opportunities faced by non-farm household enterprise owners when starting and growing a business. The report highlights the findings from two applied methodologies namely a qualitative toolkit and a quantitative analysis.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Over the past decade, Jordan’s garment manufacturing industry has maintained an impressive rate of growth. This expansion brings with it the immense potential to create decent job opportunities, including for Jordanian women. The government’s “satellite” garment unit model has targeted pockets of rural poverty in Jordan and helped bring over 4,700 Jordanian women into the formal labour market. However, most satellite units are not profitable. In this context, to continue providing decent job opportunities across Jordan while being financially viable, satellite garment factories must be transformed into sustainable businesses.

With support from the World Bank Group and the International Finance Corporation (IFC), Better Work Jordan implemented an 18-month project, “Enhancing the Productivity in Jordan’s Satellite Garment Factories”. Given the increasing number of satellite units and the model’s potential to provide sustainable work opportunities to Jordanians, the project sought to understand the challenges faced by these factories and to explore ways to enhance productivity through improvements in processes and better working conditions.

This report presents the background of the emergence of the satellite unit model in Jordan and its current status. The report draws observations on challenges and best practices documented throughout the course of the project and presents recommendations to help advance the model. Greater coordinated efforts and increased public-private dialogue could help achieve the core mission of the satellite unit model – to provide decent work opportunities for Jordanian women in rural areas.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Too often, academics and policy makers interpret formality as a binary choice and formalization as an irreversible process. Yet, formalization has many facets and shades on the business and labor fronts, and firms may not be able or willing to formalize all at once. This paper explores the joint process of business and labor formalization, using a unique panel data set of Peruvian micro enterprises. The paper finds that business formality does not imply labor formality, and vice versa. Further, there is significant churning in and out of different dimensions of formality within a relatively short period. Using an instrumental variable approach, the paper infers that business formalization affects labor formalization but not the other way around, and that enforcement is a key driver of formalization. Overall, the analysis shows that formalization is a gradual and reversible process, with small entrepreneurs weighing their possibilities in each pathway to business (often) or labor (less often) formalization, but rarely both at the same time.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This report documents cross-country findings from analysis conducted by World Bank staff working on Jobs Diagnostics. It identifies some key insights for policy makers to take into account when designing policies and programs for inclusive growth. The findings are drawn from three different sources. The macroeconomic section analyzes data for over 16,000 overlapping episodes of economic growth in 125 countries. The labor supply section analyzes labor data from the latest household surveys in 150 countries around the world. The firm-level analysis draws on business data from countries for which—at the time of writing—the World Bank had conducted a Jobs Diagnostic. The report identifies jobs-related transitions as the pathways people follow to better jobs —workers increase their hours worked, become more productive in their work, move between locations, change sectors and occupations, and shift from self- to waged employment and from less to more successful firms.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This paper uses Labor Force Survey data to assess key aspects of the labor market in Vietnam over 2007-14. The analysis finds large growth in wage employment in the foreign-owned and domestic private sectors. However, the state sector remains a major employer, particularly for workers with higher education, employing 70 percent of wage workers with a university degree. Low-skilled occupations dominate the stock of existing jobs, but the top growing occupations overwhelmingly belong to high-skilled categories. The paper notes that the high unemployment rates of recent university graduates, which have raised concern about a mismatch between skills and employer needs, reflect the transition to the job market and diminish sharply as graduates age. The returns to education in the private sector are highest for university graduates. Finally, women and ethnic minorities are less likely to work in wage jobs, and those that do earn lower wages, although the wage gap for women has declined over time.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

The project consists of a large-scale randomized controlled trial to analyze the impact of a pilot intervention aimed at supporting job seekers in their pursuit of successful labor market (re)integration. The intervention, implemented in Turkey, will be delivered as part of the existing employment support services of the national public employment agency. It will focus newly registered jobseekers, or those who are registering again after a work spell. In particular, job seekers will be provided with information to influence their employment expectations as well as evidence-based tools to inform and set job search goals and with practical strategies to persevere and sustain the motivation to overcome obstacles and setbacks. We expect this intervention to increase job search intensity, take-up of ALMP services and, as a consequence, the probability of employment.

Year: 2018

Economic growth depends on skills being put to productive use. In recent years, research on labor outcomes and education shows that there is a substantial mismatch between the supply and demand for skills around the world (Cappelli, 2014: McIntosh and Vignoles, 2001). This mismatch affects more than just wages or individual job satisfaction.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This paper finds that skills constraints – related to a broad set of skills - have an effect on job creation and labor market outcomes in Kenya. Most seriously, skills shortages negatively impact recruitment and have been identified across a broad set of socioemotional skills and cognitive skills that are necessary for any occupation.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Working Papers
Year: 2018

This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds that labor migration by Nepalese youth is extensive and male dominated. The regions with the highest rates of labor outmigration are rural Terai, rural Hills, and Mountains. Female labor migration is mostly within Nepal, whereas male labor migration is mostly to other countries. Most labor migrants are wageemployed, and engage in services. Labor migration is positively associated with education attainment for women, but negatively associated for men. Labor migration is also positively associated with household economic status for women. Just four destination countries (Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) account for the majority of foreign employment workers. Nepal’s foreign employment system faces several challenges, including implementation shortcomings in the government’s institutional arrangements for workers, and the substantial market power of private recruitment agencies over workers. Male foreign employment outflow appears to be mainly associated with economic and other forces in the top destination countries. Male youth labor migration has negative effects on the likelihood of employment and hours worked for female and male youth household members who remain at home, although the effects are not consistently significant.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2017

This Note systematizes the economic evaluation of Jobs Investment Projects. It explains the limitations of past approaches that have regarded jobs only as a by-product of growth. It focuses on market failures that create a gap between the social and private return on investments and reduce the number of good jobs below the socially optimal level. Two of these market failures are: labor externalities arising from the divergence between the market price and opportunity cost of labor; and social jobs externalities linked to improved jobs outcomes for groups such as youth, women, and the extreme poor. These externalities can amplify other market failures such as learning spillovers and coordination failures. The analysis is integrated within a Cost-Benefit framework, to facilitate decision making around jobs investment programs. The Note discusses applications to different sorts of projects: those that focus on improving the labor supply and labor market matches; those that focus on strengthening firms' demand for labor; and integrated projects, that include both types of interventions.

Type: Working Papers
Year: 2017

Should public investment be targeted to big cities or to small towns, if the objective is to minimize national poverty? To answer this policy question, this paper extends the basic Todaro-type model of rural-urban migration to the case of migration from rural areas to two potential destinations, secondary town and big city. The analysis first derives the labor income, migration cost and poverty line conditions under which a poverty gradient from rural to town to city will exist as an equilibrium phenomenon. Then sufficient statistics are developed for the policy decisions based on these parameters. The empirical remit of the model is illustrated with long-running panel data from Kagera, Tanzania. Further, the paper shows that the structure of the sufficient statistics is maintained in the case where the model is generalized to introduce heterogeneous workers and jobs.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

One of the world’s most youthful countries, Zambia’s economy has been booming since the early 2000s on the back of record high copper prices and private sector investment response to the better business environment. But poverty rose from 2010 to 2015 and remains very high in rural areas. Economic transformation is underway with workers moving to off-farm jobs, but these are heavily skewed in the capital Lusaka and in the Copperbelt, are mostly informal, and aside from jobs on the commercial farms, good waged are inaccessible to large groups of rural Zambians, especially women and youth. As labor has started moving out of agriculture into industry and especially into services, productivity and hours worked have fallen on average, especially for young people and those with low levels of education. Better educated people in the upper income quintiles are gaining most from rapid growth in Zambia, with the public sector hiring a substantial share of better educated Zambians and paying them more for a given level of education. The majority of Zambia’s rising number of poor people are stuck in low productivity agriculture. This report identifies the main jobs challenges facing Zambia and recommends policies and programs that could reduce poverty and make growth more inclusive by generating more and better jobs for Zambia.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Year: 2016

Kazakhstan is a unique country in a unique part of the world. Its uniqueness is important, as it shapes the opportunities and economic realities faced by the country, as well as the political responses to those challenges. Since independence in 1992, Kazakhstan has made rapid progress in transitioning to an upper-middle income country. This sustained growth has enabled Kazakhstan to achieve rapid reductions in poverty. This note draws on a large body of recent and ongoing analyses carried out by the World Bank, the Government of Kazakhstan, and other partners. The strategy, in turn, aims to enhance the impact of the government’s policies, programs, and projects on the availability, diversity, quality, and sustainability of jobs. The remainder of the note is structured as follows: Section 2 provides a detailed review of the state of jobs in Kazakhstan, reviewing recent progress and analyzing the nature of the challenges around self-employment; Section 3 introduces a framework for thinking about a jobs strategy in Kazakhstan, and provides an initial overview of the current situation and government response along each of its dimensions, as well as some potential policies for consideration; and Section 4 concludes.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Year: 2016

This note presents a detailed analysis of jobs in Kazakhstan at the macro and individual levels, including regional and socio-economic disparities. At the macro level, it includes a diagnostic of the links between economic growth, jobs, and productivity across different economic sectors. At the individual level, the analysis focuses on labor market outcomes of women and men, young and adult workers, residents of urban and rural areas, and people in the bottom 40 percent of the consumption distribution. It also presents a detailed analysis of determinants of employment and wages. The rest of the note is organized as follows: section two discusses the relationship between economic growth, jobs, and productivity across different economic sectors. Section three discusses demographic trends and overall labor market outcomes. Section four focuses on assessing spatial and sectoral differences in access to jobs, including for those in the bottom 40 percent. Section five concludes with a discussion of challenges and broad policy implications.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Tanzania has just entered a phase of growing dependency rates that will put pressure on job creation so that the larger number of dependents do not fall into poverty. However, the new millions of jobs that will be needed in the next decade is only part of the challenge. It is important to create better jobs. An economy that produces plenty of good jobs is the most direct way to continue the trajectory toward lower poverty rates.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Using online job portal data and probabilistic regression estimations, the paper investigates the explicit gender bias and salary gap in the Indian job market, reflected in more than 800,000 job recruitment advertisements. Exploring formal and informal sector occupations, the study finds high existence of employers' gender bias in hiring. Explicit gender preferences are highly job specific, and it is common to mention the preferred gender in job ads, which, in general, favor men over women. Although ads for professional occupations exhibit less explicit gender bias, they are not gender neutral.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This paper examines the impact of noncognitive (socio-emotional) skills on job market outcomes, using a randomized control trial implemented in an online job portal in India. Job seekers who registered in the portal were asked to take a Big-Five type personality test and, for a random subsample of the test takers, the results were displayed to potential employers. The outcomes are measured by whether a potential employer shortlisted a job seeker by opening (unlocking) his/her application and background information. The results show that the treatment group for whom test results were shown generally enjoyed a higher probability of unlock.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Guidelines/Toolkits
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This guide aims to provide general guidance to project managers and project teams on the design and implementation of integrated, cross-sectoral youth employment programs.The aim of the integrated programs described in this guide is to bring together supply- and demand side interventions to simultaneously address three interrelated objectives:Promote job creation for the target population; Improve the quality of jobs young people already have, many of which are in the informal sector; and Help prepare young job seekers for jobs or to move from low- to higher-quality jobs.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

Since the Syrian war begun in 2011, Turkey has received over 2.8 million refugees, becoming the largest host country in the world. We build and es- timate/calibrate a model using detailed micro data from Turkey to quantify the labor market effects of this sudden and massive migration wave. Low and high skill workers self-select into different regions based on idiosyncratic preferences and mobility costs, while firms within each region can exploit two margins of informality: to register or not their business, the extensive margin; and whether to hire their workers formally or not, the intensive margin.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This paper develops the concept of ‘action space’ as the range of possible destinations to which a migrant can realistically move at a given point in time and, intimately linked to this, the set of possible livelihoods at destination. It shows how this space expands and contracts over time through ‘cumulative causation.’ Such a dynamic framework allows for appreciating the role of secondary towns in rural-urban migration and poverty reduction. Secondary towns occupy a unique middle ground between semi-subsistence agriculture and the capitalistic city, between what is close by and familiar and what is much further away and unknown. By opening the horizons of the (poorer) rural population and facilitating navigation of the nonfarm economy, secondary towns allow a broader base of the poor population to become physically, economically, and socially mobile. Secondary towns therefore have great potential as vehicles for inclusive growth and poverty reduction in urbanizing developing countries. These are the insights emerging from the in-depth life history accounts of 75 purposively selected rural-urban migrants from rural Kagera, in Tanzania.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

The objective of this assignment is to conduct a quantitative and qualitative Jobs in Value Chain Survey in a rigorous manner in Iringa and Njombe regions in Tanzania, in order to extract findings that inform how to improve the competitiveness of local firms and efficiency of the tomato value chain, in a way that stimulates job creation and enhances linkages of smaller firms into the value chain.

Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018

This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment).

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Why do some countries create more jobs than others? To consider this question, in this paper we focus on one of the most basic relationships, between growth and employment. In practice, the private sector responds very differently to growth (and decline) across countries. Understanding the patterns and drivers of private sector decisions to expand and shed jobs may be important to guide policy approaches for job creation. This paper analyzes the output-employment relationship in the context of business cycles at three levels: the macro-economy; industry (in manufacturing); and firms. The results highlight major differences in private sector job creation responsiveness to growth across stages of development and economic structures, but a critical finding is that economies (and firms) where formal sector job creation was more responsive to growth cycles generated more jobs overall. In addition, results from both the macro analysis and the sectoral analysis suggests significant complementarity between capital and labor. Finally, the findings may help to frame a broad policy agenda for job creation, including: macro-economic fundamentals, responsive labor markets, access to finance, competition, and a facilitative business regulatory environment. These are not surprising, but nevertheless frame a set of issues that could be explored in further research.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2017
Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Jobs need to be at the heart of economic development policies in Zambia. Recognizing the role of jobs in making Zambia a more equal middle-income country, the Government of Zambia has prioritized job creation in its Vision 2030 and National Strategy on Job Creation and Industrialization by setting a goal to create one million jobs in key sectors over the next five years. This report has three main objectives. First, it outlines the main challenges to Zambia's jobs agenda at the macro, household, and firm levels. Second, it takes a closer look at jobs at a sectoral level, with a focus on agribusiness value chains that illustrates the potential for job creation in high-potential sectors. Lastly, it presents a set of policies that may be prioritized by policymakers as part of implementing a jobs strategy through creating more formal sector jobs, improving the quality of informal sector jobs, and connecting vulnerable population groups to jobs.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

The high incidence of informality in developing countries implies that many workers are not covered against important risks, such as unemployment, illness and old-age poverty. Given that expanding the Bismarckian system to include informal workers presents many challenges, several countries implemented non-contributory social insurance programs to expand coverage. However, these contributed to labor market segmentation and are unlikely to be financially sustainable. This note reviews the economic literature dealing with the expansion of social insurance programs and summarizes the main policy insights. It draws on international evidence on social insurance system design and innovations, and the resulting impact on coverage. It also provides general design principles that can apply to unemployment benefits, health insurance, and pensions.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

The high incidence of informality in developing countries acts as a drag on economic development due to the associated efficiency and equity costs and implied weak governance. Policy makers therefore want to reduce informality. This note presents guidance on policy levers to make formality more attractive and informality less attractive from the perspective of small, medium and large firms, and from the perspective of micro-entrepreneurs. It elaborates the challenges for shifting incentives in favor of being formal and employing workers on formal contracts rather than operating under the regulatory radar, and presents a range of policy options.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

This paper develops a general framework to inform the design of a new generation of jobs lending operations. The paper discusses the rationale for developing jobs focused lending operations with specific targets in terms of job creation, job quality, and labor markets outcomes for vulnerable population groups. It reviews the current portfolio of jobs-flagged lending operations, discusses the limitations of existing interventions, and outlines options to optimize countries lending portfolios and develop new, integrated, jobs lending operations on the basis of jobs diagnostics and jobs strategies. The paper provides examples of innovative projects that are currently under preparation or implementation, including jobs investment projects that link supply-side and demand side interventions; jobs Program for Results (PforRs), and jobs Development Policy Lending. The final section describes the types of monitoring and evaluation systems that these new projects would require to track jobs outcomes.

Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Participation in a Global Value Chain (GVC) can create more jobs through a structural transformation, and potential jobs spill overs from strengthened backward and forwardlinkages. GVCs can also have a positive impact on jobs for women. Evidence shows a disproportionateshare of jobs in labor-intensive chains benefiting women.Jobs in GVCs are better jobs because of higher wages and better working conditions, as domestic firms seek to comply with global standards to participate.  However, these above mentioned labor market outcomes being achieved depend on several parameters, such as the sector of operations, level of firm operation, and existing distortions in the labor market. But evidence for GVC participation leading to better jobs is strong at the firm level, given the win-win business case through higher productivity, efficiency, and profits.The jobs outcome through GVC participation can be strengthened through focusing on GVC upgrading strategies, implementing and strengthening private standards, improving national regulations, and strengthening monitoring and evaluation of impact of GVC operations.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Fourteenth in a series of annual reports comparing business regulation in 190 economies, Doing Business 2017 measures aspects of regulation affecting 10 areas of everyday business activity: • Starting a business • Dealing with construction permits • Getting electricity • Registering property • Getting credit • Protecting minority investors • Paying taxes • Trading across borders • Enforcing contracts • Resolving insolvency. These areas are included in the distance to frontier score and ease of doing business ranking. Doing Business also measures features of labor market regulation, which is not included in these two measures. This year’s report introduces major improvements by expanding the paying taxes indicators to cover postfiling processes—tax audits, tax refunds and tax appeals—and presents analysis of pilot data on selling to the government which measures public procurement regulations. Also for the first time this year Doing Business collects data on Somalia. Using the data originally developed by Women, Business and the Law, this year for the first time Doing Business adds a gender component to three indicators—starting a business, registering property, and enforcing contracts—and finds that those economies which limit women’s access in these areas have fewer women working in the private sector both as employers and employees.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

This study analyzes from a jobs perspective two high potential value chains (VCs) in Zambia’s agribusiness sector poultry and aquaculture. With more than 50 percent of workers and over 80 percent of poor Zambians recording themselves in agriculture in the 2010 population census, raising agricultural productivity is a determinant to reduce poverty. Yet small-scale farmers (SSFs) and modern commercial operations in large farms exist in parallel, as SSFs typically use backward production systems with scant capitalization. Zambia’s challenge is to overcome the persistent disconnect between low productivity smallholder agriculture and high productivity modern agribusiness firms. Developing market linkages will enable the agribusiness sector to meet the growing urban demand for food products, while connecting more people to jobs.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

This report studies coding bootcamps. A new kind of rapid skills training program for the digital age. Coding bootcamps are typically short-term (three to six months), intensive and applied training courses provided by a third party that crowdsources the demand for low-skills tech talent. Coding bootcamps aim at low-entry level tech employability (for example, junior developer), providing a new tool for entry into the new world of digital jobs. This report studies the characteristics, methodologies, business models and impact of five coding bootcamps operating directly or through partners in developing countries.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

This paper applies a newly-developed survey instrument to assess the structure and dynamics of jobs in the potato value chain of North Lebanon. The analysis finds that while on-farm activities represent the largest source of jobs in the value chain, most of these are low-skilled, low quality jobs taken by seasonal workers, offering limited opportunities for young Lebanese workers. The best opportunities to develop high quality jobs would come through investment in downstream processing, which would have a spillover effect also on expanding lower-skilled jobs across the chain. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require addressing significant constraints in the trade and investment climate in North Lebanon.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Year: 2017

This report provides an assessment of constraints and opportunities for the creation of more and better quality jobs for Lebanese in the more fragile and conflict-affected regions. The geographical focus is North Lebanon, including Tripoli. This analysis, accompanied by further dialogue with the key public and private sector professionals, can serve to inform the design and development of a jobs-focused program of financial support for North Lebanon. This diagnostic and program development approach can also be replicated in other high-priority, lagging regions of the country. The diagnostic followed a three-pronged approach in order to assess the gaps that need to be overcome to respond effectively to job opportunities, foster productivity, and increase earnings: 1) an assessment of the investment climate in North Lebanon; 2) a value chain analysis (VCA) of selected sectors and the interventions required to unlock competitiveness and job creation; and 3) a review of the supply of labor and skills in the region, a stock-taking of training providers. Enterprise surveys were conducted of the key agents in two targeted value chains, as well as a household-level skills survey of the working age population in North Lebanon. Complementary semi-structured interviews and focus group meetings were also undertaken. Consultations with the Government and other stakeholders took place from May through August, 2016.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

After a decade of crisis and stellar economic growth over the past five years, Côte d’Ivoire has now set its sight on becoming an emerging economy. Improving prospects for productive employment will be essential for socially sustainable growth and poverty reduction. The "Cote d'Ivoire Jobs Diagnostic: Employment, Productivity, and Inclusion for Poverty Reduction" report provides a comprehensive and multi-sectoral empirical analysis of employment challenges and opportunities to inform strategies and policy actions in Côte d’Ivoire. The report aims to expand policy discussions on employment from a focus on the number of jobs and unemployment to a broader attention on the quality, productivity and inclusiveness of jobs. It makes the case for a jobs strategy with a sharper poverty lens that would focus on raising labor productivity in agriculture and informal off-farm employment to foster structural transformation, while, in parallel, pursuing longer-term goals of expanding the thin formal sector.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Tajikistan’s economy is not creating sufficient jobs for its rapidly growing workforce, in particular its burgeoning youth population. As a result, its most valuable asset – human capital – is largely underutilized. Although remittance-driven growth since the early 2000s has led to a steep decline in the poverty rate, poverty remains high. Strong economic growth in the last decade has not resulted from structural transformation that can lead to sustained improvements in the standard of living. Jobs have been created, but these are mainly in low-productivity activities, often in the informal sector.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Sierra Leone is a relatively small economy with potential for jobs-rich growth. It is an extremely poor nation with substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources. Nearly half of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Alluvial diamond mining remains the major source of hard currency earnings, accounting for nearly half of exports. However, the anticipated job-rich recovery is unlikely to be realized simply from the continued exploitation of the minerals underneath Sierra Leonean soil. This Jobs Diagnostic of Sierra Leone is a first, modest, but necessary, step to formulate that focused effort to create good jobs.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Kosovo's economy experienced strong growth over the past decade. Has growth translated into robust job creation? Do those in the bottom forty percent of the population have access to employment opportunities that can translate into sustainable shared prosperity? This report seeks to provide an integrated analysis of the demand-side and supply-side constraints to job creation and employment; and highlighting salient issues like informality and skill mismatches. Bringing together evidence from a number of data sources, including surveys of household budgets and labor force, as well as firm-level panel data and a specialized survey capturing the employers' assessments of demand and supply of skills in Kosovo, the report tries to provide evidence to argue that reforms aimed at adopting the right set of rules, and developing the right set of skills, to promote job creation, will be vital to reduce inactivity and youth disenfranchisement, and to productively employ the demographic dividend.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo is not creating sufficient jobs for its young and rapidly growing workforce. Although the Congolese economy has experienced fast growth and poverty has declined, further reducing poverty will require more dynamic job creation and continued reductions in fertility rates. The current youth bulge and potential demographic dividend will open a unique window of opportunity but will demand faster job creation. The challenge is not limited to reducing unemployment, but includes tackling inactivity and rampant underemployment. Possible avenues to address labor market shortcomings include removing obstacles and resolving market failures for firms to grow, integrating agribusinesses into value chains, facilitating urbanization, and focusing on skills, not just schooling. At the same time, a focus on productivity growth could strengthen its link to employment creation. The report, “Democratic Republic of Congo: Jobs Diagnostic”, analyzes the main challenges—at the macro, firm, and household levels—that the country faces in creating jobs. It also outlines the main obstacles to creating more and better jobs that are more inclusive of women and youth.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Bangladesh has made remarkable progress toward poverty reduction and shared prosperity. As recently as 2000, around one in three Bangladeshis was in extreme poverty based on the $1.90 a day poverty line; today, this has fallen to below 13 percent. As in most countries, the vast majority of poverty reduction in Bangladesh over the past decade has been the result of higher labor earnings, and positive labor market developments have been at the center of such progress. Many factors—such as large-scale expansion of employment in man- ufacturing driven by the ready-made garment sector, rapid urbanization, and international labor mobility and remittances—have contributed to positive developments in the labor market, changing the lives of many.

Type: Jobs Diagnostic/Jobs Strategy
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Jobs are central to economic development. Economies grow when more people work, when jobs become more productive, and when workers move to better jobs, e.g. from low productivity farm work into jobs in the modern manufacturing or services sectors, or from remote rural areas to urban centers with greater specialization and more job opportunities. Similarly, living standards improve and poverty declines when individuals move from inactivity or unemployment into jobs, or when workers’ labor income rises.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

SMEs form a dominant share of the private sector in developing countries, and account for more than 50 percent of jobs in their respective economies. Besides their positive employment effects, the growth and vibrancy of these firms is also important for broader economic growth, diversification of economic base and as a source of innovation that is exhibited by some of the start-ups. Women-owned SMEs are emerging as one of the fast growing segments within the SME sector. Youth play an important role in the creation of new firms and start up activities. Given this importance of SMEs for creation of more, better and inclusive jobs, there is significant focus on understanding the constraints to growth of this sector and implementing programs to address them in the World Bank Group and the other development institutions. Among the several constraints that they face, access to finance is usually cited as the most important and there are several instruments that can be applied to address this constraint. However, what is the evidence of impact of these programs on the employment effects? This note brings together the learnings and evidence from access to finance interventions on employment and provides some recommendations for development practitioners who seek to maximize this objective from their access to finance interventions.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2017

Launched in October 2014, Solutions for Youth Employment (S4YE) is a multi-stakeholder coalition among public sector, private sector, and civil society actors that aims to provide leadership and resources for catalytic action to increase the number of young people engaged in productive work.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Digital technology is transforming the organization and location of production, and thus the futureof work. It risks widening the gap between richer and developing countries, and between the better skilled and connected and the poorer population groups within countries, who stand to bear the brunt of the adjustment. But technology also creates opportunities (leapfrogging), to generate jobs, increase earnings and be more inclusive. To take maximum advantage and counter the threat of rising global inequality, developing countries need to: (1) address bottlenecks in technology access; (2) invest in skills and (3) create an enabling environment.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2018
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

This paper examines the role of multinational enterprises in sustainability reporting. The study assesses how multinational enterprise status correlates with a company's average disclosure rate and probability of reporting on economic, labor and social, environmental, and governance indicators. It uses a unique data set that offers company-level information on sustainability reporting from the Global Reporting Initiative, which covers 2,020 companies in 81 countries and 54 sustainability indicators. The summary statistics show that multinational enterprises and large domestic companies have higher average disclosure rates than small and medium-size enterprises. However, the econometric analysis suggests that multinational enterprise status does not matter for the average disclosure rate, but company size shows a strongly positive correlation. Differentiating by type of multinational enterprise reveals that the relationship becomes positive and significant for private companies. By contrast, the correlation between multinational enterprise status and the average disclosure rate does not vary by listing status, sector, region, or income level. Focusing on the relationship by development category also shows no significant correlation. Finally, accounting for the heterogeneity of the sustainability indicators, the study analyzes the relationship between multinational enterprise status and the probability of disclosure at the detailed indicator level, and confirms a significant correlation for 12 indicators.

Type: Guidelines/Toolkits
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

IFC’s Work-Progression and Productivity Toolkit (WPT) is a training program for female sewing operators designed to redress the imbalance on sewing lines in Bangladesh’s readymade garment (RMG) factories, where more than nineteen of every 20 line supervisors are men despite 80% of line workers being women. The program aims to equip women with the skills necessary to become supervisors. WPT provides female sewing operators with five days of classroom training in the technical skills required to supervise a production line as well as four days of soft skills training on leadership, communications, and how to be an effective supervisor. The trainees then apply what they have learned over eight weeks of on-the-job training alongside an experienced supervisor, to prepare them for the step up to supervisor or assistant supervisor.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Guidelines/Toolkits
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

The Jobs M&E Toolkit provides a package of resources for project teams and clients to support mainstreaming the Jobs Agenda in World Bank Group (WBG) lending operations. The aim is to help teams working with government counterparts with simple tools for data collection on jobs, without the burden of resource-intensive survey efforts. The toolkit contains a set of guidance on indicators for key results on jobs, data collection forms and manuals, which are tailored by beneficiary type: individuals and firms. The availability of measurable indicators should encourage a more systematic assessment of jobs outcomes. The Jobs M&E Toolkit provides resources to be used throughout the entire project cycle. It is best applied ex-ante in the design of projects and their M&E systems, so that data collection can support implementation progress and reporting from the outset. Regular monitoring and data availability will underpin project completion to assess achievements in job results ex-post. The indicators and data collection forms may also be useful for related mid-term, final or impact evaluations. The resources made available through the Jobs M&E toolkit have been developed by the WBG's Jobs Group in a consultative process. The menu of indicators and related guidance were generated through a portfolio review of WBG projects and in consultation with Task Team Leaders (TTLs) from different Global Practices (GPs). Further, data collection manuals were developed using existing resources from Labor Force Surveys, enterprise surveys and different surveys developed by the WBG. Moreover, the Jobs M&E Toolkit is currently being piloted in a number of WBG operations, with feedback from project teams helping to revise, adapt and refine the toolkit.

Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

This report analyzes the World Bank Group (WBG) portfolio in Zambia focused on jobs, referred to as the jobs portfolio, regarding its impact on outcomes related to job creation, job quality, and job access. The review is presented within the context of Zambia’s jobs priorities: more good-quality jobs with traditionally disadvantaged groups benefitting from opportunities to work. It finds that the jobs portfolio is more focused on intermediate-level outcomes related to jobs, such as improving access to markets and firm performance. A range of intervention types contributes to job creation (66 percent of the reviewed portfolio), job quality (47 percent), and job access (51 percent). Activities focused on spatial development in value chains tend to support job creation in the formal sector. Job quality outcomes include enhanced worker productivity in informal agriculture where the majority of Zambians still work. The WBG has primarily supported job access through targeted interventions in lagging regions. Further, the combined portfolios of the WBG and let’s work partners show greater coverage of a range of job quality and job access outcomes. Areas for future support to improve job outcomes include macroeconomic and regulatory support, skills development, and targeted support for vulnerable populations and youth in particular. In addition, projects need to be reinforced by sound monitoring and evaluation (M and E) systems tracking results explicitly related to jobs.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

A common concern with efforts to directly help some small businesses to grow is that their growth comes at the expense of their unassisted competitors. This study tests this possibility using a two-stage randomized experiment in Kenya. The experiment randomizes business training at the market level, and then within markets to selected businesses. Three years after training, the treated businesses are selling more, earn higher profits, and their owners have higher well-being. There is no evidence of negative spillovers on the competing businesses, and the markets as a whole appear to have grown in terms of number of customers and sales volumes. This market growth appears to come from enhanced customer service and new product introduction, generating more customers and more sales from existing customers. As a result, business growth in underdeveloped markets is possible without taking sales away from nontreated businesses.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

The Union of Comoros is an insular State of 3 islands (Grande Comore or Ngazidja in local language, Anjouan or Ndzwani, and Mohéli or Mwali) with a population of 760 000. Poverty and inequality are high, with 48 percent of the population living with incomes below US$1.25 per day, and one-third of all children under 5 years of age suffered from chronic malnutrition.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2019
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Economists and other social scientists are increasingly using big data analytics to address longstanding economic questions and complement existing information sources. Big data produced by online platforms can yield a wealth of diverse, highly granular, multidimensional information with a variety of potential applications. This paper examines how online job-portal data can be used as a basis for policy-relevant research in the fields of labor economics and workforce skills development, through an empirical analysis of information generated by Babajob, an online Indian job portal.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Ukraine’s economic progress since its independence in the early 1990s has been uneven, in part due to the slow pace of reforms, unfavorable demographic factors, and low productivity. One of the key factors limiting success is the inadequacy of the skills of Ukraine’s workforce with the needs of a modern economy. While the country demonstrates a strong record of educational attainment and acquisition of foundational skills, the post-secondary education and training system fails to equip workers with the right advanced skills for labor market success. This study provides new evidence on the nature of skills valued in the labor market, reviews the institutional constraints hindering the development and use of workforce’s skills, and proposes a set of policy options.This study argues that, to improve skills formation and use, Ukraine needs to renew its public policies on post-secondary education, labor-market intermediation and information, and labor regulations. Drawing on household and firm surveys, the study finds that workers need a mix of advanced cognitive skills (like problem solving and communication), socio-emotional skills (like self-management and teamwork), and technical skills (like computer programing or sale skills) to be successful in the labor market and meet employers’ demand. These skills are not necessarily explicitly taught in traditional learning settings. Policy makers should therefore rethink the content of post-secondary education and training to focus on the development of skills for the labor market rather than only attendance. To do so, establishing steady links between education institutions and enterprises, by setting up occupation standards and adapting curricula to firm demand, is crucial. An essential instrument to identify the demand for skills and facilitate fruitful investments in skills formation is a labor market information system—which provides reliable information on labor market prospects across post-secondary education fields and institutions and job requirements and characteristics to students, their families, and jobseekers. Nonetheless, a better formation of skills would only be beneficial if most of the workforce can put them at use in jobs, promoted by better labor regulations.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017

Ukraine’s economic progress since its independence in the early 1990s has been uneven, in part due to the slow pace of reforms, unfavorable demographic factors, and low productivity. One of the key factors limiting success is the inadequacy of the skills of Ukraine’s workforce with the needs of a modern economy. While the country demonstrates a strong record of educational attainment and acquisition of foundational skills, the post-secondary education and training system fails to equip workers with the right advanced skills for labor market success. This study provides new evidence on the nature of skills valued in the labor market, reviews the institutional constraints hindering the development and use of workforce’s skills, and proposes a set of policy options.This study argues that, to improve skills formation and use, Ukraine needs to renew its public policies on post-secondary education, labor-market intermediation and information, and labor regulations. Drawing on household and firm surveys, the study finds that workers need a mix of advanced cognitive skills (like problem solving and communication), socio-emotional skills (like self-management and teamwork), and technical skills (like computer programing or sale skills) to be successful in the labor market and meet employers’ demand. These skills are not necessarily explicitly taught in traditional learning settings. Policy makers should therefore rethink the content of post-secondary education and training to focus on the development of skills for the labor market rather than only attendance. To do so, establishing steady links between education institutions and enterprises, by setting up occupation standards and adapting curricula to firm demand, is crucial. An essential instrument to identify the demand for skills and facilitate fruitful investments in skills formation is a labor market information system—which provides reliable information on labor market prospects across post-secondary education fields and institutions and job requirements and characteristics to students, their families, and jobseekers. Nonetheless, a better formation of skills would only be beneficial if most of the workforce can put them at use in jobs, promoted by better labor regulations.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Jobs Series
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2017
Type: Jobs Series
Year: 2017

This study analyzes from a jobs perspective two high potential value chains (VCs) in Zambia’s agribusiness sector poultry and aquaculture. With more than 50 percent of workers and over 80 percent of poor Zambians recording themselves in agriculture in the 2010 population census, raising agricultural productivity is a determinant to reduce poverty. Yet small-scale farmers (SSFs) and modern commercial operations in large farms exist in parallel, as SSFs typically use backward production systems with scant capitalization. Zambia’s challenge is to overcome the persistent disconnect between low productivity smallholder agriculture and high productivity modern agribusiness firms. Developing market linkages will enable the agribusiness sector to meet the growing urban demand for food products, while connecting more people to jobs.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016

This paper estimates the effects of knowledge spillovers on firms' long-term performance and workers' wages. For this purpose, we use the participation in an innovation support program as an exogenous shock to the knowledge stock of non-participant firms. We pinpoint the knowledge diffusion process by tracking the mobility of skilled workers among firms. Combining an employer-employee panel dataset that contains the whole population of firms and workers in Argentina for the period 1998-2013 with administrative data from the FONTAR program, we track the mobility of workers from participant to non-participant firms. To estimate the effect of spillovers we use the panel structure of the dataset using Lag Dependent Variable (LDV) models. We find that firms that hired skilled workers from participant firms increased employment (in addition to the workers from participant firms), the average wage they pay, their exporting probability, and the value of their exports. Consistent with the hypothesis that those effects are due to newly acquired productive knowledge, we provide evidence showing that the effects were driven by firm-level productivity improvements. Finally, we show that a wage premium is paid to skilled workers exposed to the program either by participant (to retain) or non-participant firms (to acquire) depending on the concentration level of the industry of reference. This finding further confirms the hypothesis that valuable productive knowledge is generated through the program and that this knowledge is more extensively di used in less concentrated industries.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016

Jobs are a high priority for development and stability in fragile and conflict-affected situations. Jobs contribute to poverty reduction, productivity and economic growth, and can promote social cohesion and reduce the risk of violence. However, the jobs environment is particularly challenging in situations affected by fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV), with various combinations of high political, economic and social risks, weak institutional capacity, a difficult political economy, and significant constraints on financial resources to support recovery and reconstruction. Thus, fragile situations have an urgent need for well-structured assistance to address these challenges and create job opportunities. To help strengthen its engagement on jobs in FCV, the World Bank Group (WBG) has developed an integrated jobs framework. The purpose of this note is to describe the framework, which has been adapted from the WBG’s general jobs framework to incorporate the above dimensions of fragility and instability, and to outline the policy and operational implications for both the short and long run. Ultimately, the aim is to improve the support the WBG can offer to expand job opportunities across the range of FCV contexts.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Guidelines/Toolkits
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016

This Regulatory Assessment is part of the “Accelerating the Impact of Transport Infrastructure Investments in India Through a Market-led Approach” project launched by the World Bank with a pilot collaboration with the Government of Rajasthan along the orange/mandarin and coriander value chains in Kota division. The project’s Development Corridors model is designed to leverage transport infrastructure networks in order to unlock untapped market potential in the agricultural sector and improve economic opportunities for people living in deprived rural areas in Rajasthan. While some of the gaps in the enabling environment can be directly addressed through investment, others will require policy or regulatory changes and better implementation of existing laws and regulations.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016

Social assistance benefits are often conditional on school attendance. However,
they will only lead to higher human-capital accumulation and increased labor market earnings through learning. We use a regression-discontinuity design to examine whether conditional cash transfers impact test scores in national exams. Identification of causal effects exploits an unexpected change in the eligibility cutoff of Brazils Bolsa Famlia that gives rise to exogenous variation in program participation. The analysis draws on detailed administrative data linking individual records from the programs payment sheets, the nations single registry of the poor and vulnerable, and educational outcomes from student censuses and test scores. The results reveal that the program leads to significant improvements in learning of Mathematics and Portuguese language. Investigating the mechanisms through which these effects take place, we find that the program causes parents to monitor student effort more frequently, and students to increase effort in school and decrease engagement in work.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2016
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2015
Type: Working Papers
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015

This paper investigates the occupational mobility and job quality of young people in Indonesia and relates this to the concept of “scarring.” The concept of labor market scarring in this paper is the occurrence of low or zero returns to certain types of work (for example, self-employment). Scarring is expected to occur whenever an individual spends periods working in occupations in which their human capital is either stagnant or deteriorating. Fixed effects estimations using panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey reveal that a period in self-employment is associated with negative returns for youth (about 3 to 4 percent per year penalty), but not for older adults. In addition, there are clear patterns of persistence in self-employment over time with few individuals progressing from petty self-employment to businesses with permanent workers.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2015

Getting youth into productive employment is an urgent policy issue for countries around the world. Many governments in low and middle-income countries are actively engaged in policies to help youth attain the skills they need to do well in work and in life, as well as to find suitable employment. The involvement of the private sector in youth skills development and employment is a complex issue because the nature of the firms and their motivations vary significantly.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2015
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015

In the past 15 years, employment, labor market participation, and wages have grown significantly in Brazil. Improved labor market outcomes have been the main drivers of reductions in poverty and inequality. But job creation is already slowing. Continued progress in employment and labor earnings will depend on the country’s ability to achieve a first critical goal: raising labor productivity. Continued improvements in the livelihoods of the poor will depend on the country’s ability to achieve a second critical goal: connecting the poor to better, more productive jobs. Sustaining Employment and Wage Gains in Brazil: A Skills and Jobs Agenda analyzes Brazil’s labor markets and identifies the key challenges involved in sustaining job creation, wage growth, and poverty reduction.

Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2015
Type: Knowledge Notes and Briefs
Partnership: S4YE / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2015
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF
Year: 2015
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2015
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2014

This paper studies the impact of the Brazilian Arranjos Productivos Locais (APL) policy, a cluster development policy, on small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs) performance. Using firm-level data on SMEs for the years 2002–2009, this paper combines fixed effects with reweighting methods to estimate both the direct and the indirect causal effects of participating in the APL policy on employment growth, value of total exports, and likelihood of exporting. Our results show that APL policy generates a positive direct impact on the three outcomes of interest. They also show evidence of short-term negative spillovers effects on employment in the first year after the policy implementation and positive spillovers on export outcomes in the medium and long term. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for the timing and gestation periods of the effects on firm performances when assessing the impact of clusters policies.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2014

This paper studies the effect of government- backed partial credit guarantees on firms’ performance in Colombia. These guarantees are automatically granted by the National Guarantee Fund (NGF) to firms without enough collateral to lift their credit constraints. We put together a panel of firms covering the period 1997–2007 that allows us to control for observed and unobserved firm characteristics potentially affecting both the selection of firms into the program and firms’ performance. We find that firms that gain access to credit backed by the NGF were able to grow in terms of both output and employment. However, we do not find any effect on productivity, wages, or investment.

Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2014
Type: Reports and Case Studies
Partnership: Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2013

We conduct a randomized experiment in 157 rural markets in Kenya to test how business training (the International Labour Organization (ILO)'s Gender and Enterprise Together program) affects the profitability, growth and survival of female-owned businesses, and to evaluate whether any gains in profitability come at the expense of other business owners. We work with a large sample of 3,537 firms, and use a two-stage randomization, first randomizing at the market-level, and then randomizing the offer of training to individuals within treated markets. A year and a half after the training has taken place, half of the sample assigned to training was then offered a subsequent mentoring intervention intended to test whether additional group-based and in-person support strengthens the impacts of training. Four rounds of follow-up surveys with low attrition are used to measure impacts at one and three years after training. This is complimented with data from a market census taken four years after training, that also included male-operated firms.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2013
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2013
Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2013

This article evaluates the effect of the Argentinean Support Program for Organizational Change on employment and wages. The program aimed at increasing small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness by co-financing technical assistance to support process and product innovation activities. Although employment is not usually the main objective of these types of programs, they are always implemented assuming that they create—or at least do not destroy—employment opportunities. We to test this important assumption. Using a combination of fixed effects and matching, we find that both process and product innovation support increased employment and wages, with a higher impact on employment. In addition, we find that product innovation support had a larger effect on wages than process innovation support. We use a unique data set with information for the population of firms in Argentina from 1996 to 2008 to test this important assumption. Using a combination of fixed effects and matching, we find that both process and product innovation support increased employment and wages, with a higher impact on employment. In addition, we find that product innovation support had a larger effect on wages than process innovation support.

Partnership: Let’s Work / Jobs Umbrella MDTF, Umbrella Multidonor Trust Fund (MDTF)
Year: 2009

This paper evaluates the impact of the Chilean Supplier Development Program, aimed at improving and stabilizing the commercial linkages between small and medium-sized suppliers and their large firm customers, during the period 2003–2008. We use the panel structure of our dataset to control for observables and time-invariant unobservable factors that affect the participation and performance of firms. We find that both small and medium enterprises and large firms benefited from the coordination efforts. The program increased sales, employment, and the sustainability of small and medium-sized suppliers; it also increased the sales of large firms and raised their ability to become exporters. In addition, we find that the timing of the effect is different for suppliers and large firms. While the effect on suppliers appeared 1 year after the firms enrolled in the program, the effect on large firms took 2 years to appear.